Energy Content, Building Materials (manufacture of)

MATERIAL

MJ/kg

MJ/m3

KWhr/kg

KWhr/m3

Renewable

Recyclable

Bio-degradable

Aggregate; general

0.1

150

 

 

 

 

 

Aluminium; virgin

191.0

515,700

89.56

 

no

33%

no

Aluminum; recycled

 

 

26.56

 

no

33%

no

Bitumen

44.1

45,420

 

 

 

 

 

Brass

62

519,560

 

 

 

 

 

Carpet

72.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cement

7.8

15,210

 

 

 

 

 

Cement; brick

2.5

5,170

 

700

 

 

 

Cement; soil mix

0.4

819

 

 

 

 

 

Cement; Tile

2.5

5,250

 

 

 

 

 

Concrete, general

 

 

1.91 -2.16

 

no

low %

no

Concrete; block

0.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

Concrete; ready mix 17.5 MPa

1

2,350

 

 

 

 

 

Concrete; roofing tile

0

0.8

 

 

 

 

 

Copper

70.6

631,160

 

 

 

 

 

Adobe; block, straw stabilised

0.5

750

 

 

 

 

 

Adobe; bitumen stabilised

0.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

Adobe; cement stabilised

0.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

Earth; rammed soil cement

0.8

 

 

 

 

 

 

Earth; pressed block

0.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

Glass; float

15.9

40,060

 

 

 

 

 

Insulation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Insulation; cellulose

3.3

112

 

50

 

 

 

Insulation; fiberglass

30.3

970

 

 

 

 

 

Insulation; polyester

53.7

430

 

 

 

 

 

Insulation; polystyrene

117

2,340

 

450

 

 

 

Insulation; wool (recycled)

14.6

139

 

 

 

 

 

Limestone

 

 

 

350

 

 

 

Paint

90.4

118/litre

 

 

 

 

 

Paint; solvent based

98.1

128/litre

 

 

 

 

 

Paint; water based

88.5

115/litre

 

 

 

 

 

Paper; building

25.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

Plaster; gypsum

4.5

6,460

 

 

 

 

 

Plaster; limestone

 

 

 

1,100

 

 

 

Plaster; bonded resin

 

 

 

3,300

 

 

 

Plaster board

6.1

5,890

 

 

 

 

 

Plastics, general

 

 

11.21 - 44.29

 

no

50%

no

Plastics; polyethylene, low density (LDPE)

103

91,800

 

 

 

 

 

Plastics; polypropylene

64

57,600

 

 

 

 

 

Plastics; polystyrene, expanded

117

2,340

 

 

 

 

 

PVC

70

93,620

 

 

 

 

 

Rubber; natural latex

67.5

62,100

 

 

 

 

 

Steel; general

 

 

8.55 - 12.99

 

no

26 - 70%

no

Steel; virgin, general

32

251,200

 

 

 

 

 

Steel; recycled

10.1

37,210

 

 

 

 

 

Steel; reinforcing, sections

8.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

Steel; wire rod

12.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

Steel; galvanized

34.8

273,180

 

 

 

 

 

Steel; structural

 

 

 

57,000

 

 

 

Stone; local

0.8

1,890

 

 

 

 

 

Straw; baled

0.24

31

 

 

 

 

 

Timber; general

 

 

1.45 - 1.67

 

yes

low %

yes

Timber; building

 

 

 

180

 

 

 

Timber; softwood - air dried, roughsawn

0.3

165

 

 

 

 

 

Timber; softwood - kiln dried, roughsawn

1.6

880

 

 

 

 

 

Timber; softwood - air dried, dressed

1.2

638

 

 

 

 

 

Timber; softwood - kiln dried, dressed

2.5

1,380

 

 

 

 

 

Timber; hardwood

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Timber; hardwood - air dried, roughsawn

0.5

388

 

 

 

 

 

Timber; hardwood - kiln dried, roughsawn

2

1,550

 

 

 

 

 

Wood; mouldings, etc.

3.1

1,710

 

 

 

 

 

Wood; hardboard

24.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

Wood; hardboard (formaldehyde bonded)

 

 

 

2000

 

 

 

Wood; MDF

11.9

8,330

 

1,400

 

 

 

Wood; glulam

4.6

2,530

 

 

 

 

 

Wood; particle board

8

 

 

 

 

 

 

Wood; plywood

10.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

Wood; shingles

9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Notes:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1 MJ is 0.2777778 KWhr

 

 

 

 

 

 

A tonne is a UK ton or 2240 lbs or 1016.05 kg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sources:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Forestry and Timber Inquiry, Final Report; Australian Parliament Resource Assessment Commission; March, 1992 (http://www.metla.fi/archive/forest/1995/11/msg00063.html)

Appropriate Technology for Living Association Inc.; ATLA News; Issue 7, No. 4; November, 1998 (http://www.converge.org.nz/atla/new-11-98-p4.html)

Living Spaces, Sustainable Building and Design; Koneman; 1998, Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Cologne

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Embodied Energy Content Analysis For Three Construction Materials

 

 

 

 

Material or Energy

Emissions or use of raw material per kg product (dry material)

 

 

 

 

 

Structural timber

Roof truss

Cladding boards

 

 

 

 

EMISSIONS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CO2

95.7 g

98.4 g

94.1 g

 

 

 

 

CO

5.91 g

8.33 g

5.83 g

 

 

 

 

NOx

3.39 g

4.02 g

3.34 g

 

 

 

 

SO2

0.112 g

0.121 g

0.110 g

 

 

 

 

VOC total

1.16 g

1.56 g

1.14 g

 

 

 

 

CH4

0.415 g

0.552 g

0.409 g

 

 

 

 

PAH

0.00123 g

0.00175 g

0.00121 g

 

 

 

 

Benzene

0.0341 g

0.0474 g

0.0336 g

 

 

 

 

Other VOCs

0.700 g

0.915 g

0.690 g

 

 

 

 

Heavy metals

0.000478 g

0.000679 g

0.000471 g

 

 

 

 

Dust into air (particulates)

0.773 g

1.06 g

0.761 g

 

 

 

 

Bound Carbon (CO2)

792 g

792 g

792 g

 

 

 

 

RAW MATERIALS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Wooden raw material (wet/dry)

4900/2660 g

5400/2940 g

4830/2750 g

 

 

 

 

Phosphate fertilizers

0.300 g

0.331 g

0.295 g

 

 

 

 

Nitrogen fertilizers

1.71 g

1.88 g

1.68 g

 

 

 

 

Potassium fertilizers

0.300 g

0.331 g

0.295 g

 

 

 

 

Pesticides

0.0173 g

0.0191 g

0.0170 g

 

 

 

 

Saw blade chain oil, biol.

0.0628 g

0.0691 g

0.0617 g

 

 

 

 

Saw blade chain oil, miner.

0.128 g

0.141 g

0.126 g

 

 

 

 

Lubricants, biol.

0.246 g

0.271 g

0.242 g

 

 

 

 

Lubricants, miner.

0.917 g

1.01 g

0.902 g

 

 

 

 

Steel bands

0.790 g

0.870 g

0.780 g

 

 

 

 

Wrapping

2.11 g

2.32 g

2.08 g

 

 

 

 

Stamping colours (latex)

0.0135 g

0.0380 g

0.0133 g

 

 

 

 

Blue stain prevention

0.320 g

0.350 g

0.310 g

 

 

 

 

Nail and nail sheets

6.22 g

42.2 g

7.22 g

 

 

 

 

Paints

-

-

201 g

 

 

 

 

ENERGY

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Renewable energy (Higher Heating Value of logs)

54.6 MJ

60.2 MJ

56.5 MJ

 

 

 

 

Fossil fuels

1.40 MJ

1.38 MJ

1.38 MJ

 

 

 

 

Electricity

0.0140 MJ

0.0100 MJ

0.00695 MJ

 

 

 

 

Utilization of waste heat

0.208 MJ

1.21 MJ

0.205 MJ

 

 

 

 

Potential energy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

of products

17.1 MJ

17.1 MJ

17.1 MJ

 

 

 

 

of loss at building site

2.61 MJ

-

4.95 MJ

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sources:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

“Environmental Aspects of Building Materials", Tarja Häkkinen, The Finnish Building Technology Technical Research Center

 

 

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